GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH

Рогова Г. В.

Методика обучения британскому языку. (На англ. яз.) Учебное пособие для педагогических институтов и факультетов зарубежного языка Л., «Просвещение». 2000.

216 с.

Предлагаемая книжка представляет собой курс лекций по методи­ке преподавания британского языка и создана для студентов колледжей, педагогических институтов.

В ней отыскали отражение последующие GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING цели и задачки об­учения зарубежному языку, обзор главных направлений методики. содержание обучения, организация школьного обучения, контроль познаний учащихся, внеклассная работа, обучение зарубежному языку дошкольников и младших школьников.4И (АНГЛ)

ОТ Создателя

В почти всех педагогических институтах и на факультетах иност­ранных языков преподавание методики обучения британскому языку ведется на британском языке GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING, в связи с чем появилась необходимость в разработке учебного пособия "Methods of Teaching English". Пособие создано для студентов педвузов, но оно может быть также применено учителями британского языка в их практической работе.

-Methods of Teaching English" представляет собой курс лек­ций читаемый создателем на факультете британского языка МГПИ GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING им, В. И. Ленина, и обхватывает" все главные разделы программки. В нем ставится цель, с одной стороны, выложить концепцию кафедры методики, выработанную на базе долголетней научно-исследователь­ской работы, с другой — посодействовать студентам завладеть методической и частично общепедагогической терминологией, встречающейся в англий­ской литературе (для этого создатель сознательно включает GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING в книжку не один, а несколько определений, имеющихся в британской методической литературе для передачи 1-го и такого же понятия, к примеру, для осознания речи со слуха употребляются слона: hearing, listening com­prehension, auding, aural comprehension).

При изложении каждой темы создатель держится последующего принципа: выделяются главные задачи, с которыми GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING сталкивается учитель при обучении зарубежному языку в школе, раскрывается сущность каждой из заморочек, предлагается се решение. Излагая материал,
создатель стремится показать, что деяния учащихся с материалом должны быть адекватны создаваемой деятельности. Напри­мер. если употребление слов в речи связано с работой речи—отбором слов и включением их » выражение (словес­ную GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING цепь, по Н. И. Жинкину) то при исследовании лексики упражне­ния должны быть ориентированы на то. чтоб учащиеся умели быстронаходить в памяти необходимое слово и употреблять его. Если чтение связано с овладением графемно-фонемными соответствиями и расширением поля чтения, чтоб уметь стремительно извлекать нужную информацию из печатного текста, то GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING и упражнении должны быть ориентированы на овладение техникой чте­ния вслух и про себя и на извлечение смысловой инфы из текста. Так как создатель делает попытку предложить методическое реше­ние, исходя из сущности создаваемой деятельности, то он счел вероятным в данной работе ограничиться только принципным подходом к реше­нию GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING методических заморочек. Что касается определенных советов по работе в каждом классе школы, то они являются предметом обсуж­дения на практических упражнениях и во время педагогической практики в школе. С этой цепью и каждой главе книжки студентам предлагается серия вопросов-заданий для обсуждения и нахождения практического решения задачи на определенном GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING материале, избранном студентом либо обозначенном педагогом. Эти вопросы-задания можно также использовать в качестве теп для докладов на спец.семинаре, курсовых и дипломных работ.

Создатель никак не считает излагаемую о пособии концепцию един­ственно применимой. Он дает студентам возможность без помощи других изучить, а потом тщательно и аргументированно обсудить другие GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING точки зрения по тон либо другой дилемме. В конце каждой главы дается спи­сок литературы, отражающей разные точки зрения по изложенной дилемме и определенные вопросы для дискуссии.

В целях облегчения подготовки студентов к дискуссии темы на британском языке в книжке дается перечень слов и выражений по курсу методики обучения GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING зарубежным языкам в школе (приблизительно 300 сло­варных статей, любая из которых включает словосочетания, упо­требляемые в методической и педагогической литературе).

Кинга состоит из 17 глав, библиографии и перечня слов и выра­жений по методике обучения зарубежным языкам в школе.Создатель выражает глубокую благодарность коллективам кафедры методики МГПИ им. В. И. Ленина GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING, МГИИИЯ им. Мориса Тореза. также А. П. Старкову, Л. П. Пушкаревой, А. Г. Гиляновой за внимательнее чтение работы и ценные критичные замечания.

Part One

GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

Chapter I

Methods of Foreign Language Teaching and Its Relation to Other Sciences

Methods of foreign language teaching is understood GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING here as a body of scientifically tested theory concerning the teach­ing of foreign languages in schools and other educational institutions. It covers three main problems:

(1)aims of teaching a foreign language;

(2)content of teaching, i. e. what to teach to attain this aims;

(3)methods and techniques of teaching, i. e GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING. how to teach a foreign language to attain the aims in the most ef­fective way.

Methods of foreign language teaching is closely related to other sciences such as pedagogics, psychology, physi­ology, linguistics, and some others.

Pedagogics is the science concerned with the teach­ing and education GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING of the younger generation. Since .Meth­ods also deals with the problems of teaching and educa­tion, it is most closely related to pedagogics. To study for­eign language teaching one must know pedagogics. One branch of pedagogics is called didactics. Didactics studies general ways of teaching in schools. .Methods GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING, as compared to didactics, studies the specific ways of teaching a definite subject. Thus, it may be considered special didactics. In the foreign language teaching, as well as in the teaching of mathematics, history, and other subjects taught in schools, general prin­ciples of didactics are applied and, in GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING their turn, influence and enrich didactics. For example, the so-called "principle of visualization'' was first introduced in teaching foreign languages. Now it has become one of the fundamental prin­ciples of didactics and is used in teaching all school subjects without exception. Programmed instruction was first ap GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING­plied to teaching mathematics. Now through didactics it is used in teaching many subjects, including foreign lan­guages.

Teaching a foreign language means first and foremost the formation and development of pupils' habits and skills in hearing, speaking, reading, and writing. We cannot ex­pect to develop such habits and skills GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING of our pupils effec­tively if we do not know and take into account the p s у с h о l o g y of habits and skills, the ways of forming them, the influence of formerly acquired habits on the formation of new ones, and main other GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING necessary factors that psychology-can supply us with. ЛI present we have much material in the Held of psychology which can be applied to teaching a foreign language. For example, N. I. Zhinkin, a promi­nent Soviet psychologist in his investigation of the mecha­nisms of speech came GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING to the conclusion that words and rules of combining them are most probably dormant in the kinetic center of the brain. When the ear receives a signal it reaches the brain, its hearing center and then passes to the kinetic center. Thus, if a teacher wants his pupils to GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING speak English he must use all the opportunities he has to make them hear and speak it. Furthermore, to master a sec­ond language is to acquire another code, another way of receiving and transmitting information. To create this new-code in the most effective way one must GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING take into consid­eration certain psychological factors.

Effective learning of a foreign language depends to a great extent on the pupils' memory. That is why a teacher must know how he can help his pupils to successfully memorize and retain in memory the language material they learn. Here again GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING psychological investigations are significant. For example, the Soviet psychologist, P. K. Zinchenko, proved that in learning a subject both voluntary and in­voluntary memory is of great importance. In his investigation of involuntary memory P. K. Zinchenko came to the con­clusion that this memory is retentive. Consequently, in teaching GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING a foreign language we should create favourable conditions for involuntary memorizing. P. K. Zinchenko showed that involuntary memorizing is possible only when pupils' attention is concentrated not on fixing the material in their memory through numerous repetitions, but on solv­ing some mental problems which deal with GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING this material. To prove this the following experiment was carried out. Students of group A were given a list of words lo memorize (voluntary memorizing). Students of group В did not re­ceive a list of words to memorize. Instead, they got an English text and some assignments which мейд them GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING work with these words, use them in answering various questions. Dur­ing the next lesson a vocabulary test was given to the stu­dents of both groups. The results were approximately the same. A test given a fortnight later proved, however, that the students of group В GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING retained the words in their memory much better than the students of group A. This shows that involuntary memorizing may be more retentive under cer­tain circumstances. Experiments by prominent scientists show that psychology helps Methods to determine the role of the mother tongue in different stages of teaching GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING; the amount of material for pupils to assimilate at every stage of instruc­tion; the sequence and ways in which various habits and skills should be developed; the methods and techniques which are more suitable (or presenting the material and for ensuring its retention by the pupils, and so on GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING.

Methods of foreign language teaching has a definite rela­tion to p h у s i о l o g у of the higher nervous system. Pav­lov's theories of "conditioned reflexes", of the "second sig­nalling system" and of "dynamic stereotype" are the exam­ples. Each GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING of These interrelated theories bears a direct rela­tion to the teaching of a foreign language.

According (o Pavlov habits are conditioned reflexes, and a conditioned reflex is an action performed automat­ically in response to a definite stimulus as a result of previ­ous frequent repetitions of the same action. If GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING we thoroughly study the theory of conditioned reflexes we shall see that it explains and confirms the necessity for frequent repeti­tions and revision of material pupils study as one of the means of inculcating habits. Pavlov named this the second signalling system.

Consequently one of the GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING forms of human behaviour is language behaviour, i. c., speech response to different communica­tion situations. Therefore in leaching a foreign language we must bear in mind that pupils should acquire the language they study as a behaviour, as something that helps people to communicate with each other GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING in various real situations of intercourse. Hence a foreign language should be taught through such situations.

Pavlov's theory of "dynamic stereotype" also furnishes the physiological base for many important principles of language teaching, e. g., for the topical vocabulary ar­rangement.

Methods of foreign language teaching is most closely related to GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING linguistics, since linguistics deals with the problems which are of paramount importance to Meth­ods, with language and thinking, grammar and vocabulary, the relationship between grammar and vocabulary, and many others. Methods successfully uses, for example, the results of linguistic investigation in the selection and arrangement of GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING language material for teaching. It is known that structur­al linguistics has had a great impact on language teach­ing. Teaching materials have been prepared by linguists and methodologists of the structural school. Many prom­inent linguists have not only developed the theory of lin­guistics, but tried to apply GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING it to language teaching. The following quotation may serve as a proof of this:

"It has occurred to the linguist as well as to the psycholo­gist that the foreign language classroom should be an excel­lent laboratory in which to test new theories of language acquisition GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING."'

Methods of foreign language teaching like any other sci­ence, has definite ways of investigating the problems which may arise. They are:

(1)a critical study of the ways foreign languages were taught in our country and abroad;

(2)a thorough study and summing up of the experience of the best GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING foreign language teachers in different types of schools;

(:() experimenting with the aim of confirming or refut­ing the working hypotheses that may arise during investigation. Experimenting becomes more and more popular with methodologists. In experimenting methodologists have to deal with different data, that is why in arranging research work they use mathematics GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING, statistics, and probability theory to interpret experimental results.

In recent years there has been a great increase of interest in .Methods since foreign language teaching has many attrac­tions as an area for research. A great deal of useful research work has been carried out. New ideas and new GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING data pro­duced as the result of research are usually developed into new teaching materials and teaching techniques.

It should be said that we need research activities of the following types: descriptive research which deals with '"«hat to teach"; experimental and instrumental research dealing with "how to GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING teach". More research is now needed which compares different combination of devices, various teaching aids, etc.

Recommended Literature:

Anitchkov I., Saakyants V. Methods of Teaching English in Secon­dary Schools. M. — Л., ..Просвещение", 1966. с. II—'26.

Общая методика обучения зарубежным языкам в средней школе. Под ред. А. А. Мнролюбова GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING. И. В. Рахманова. В. С. Цеглнн. М„ 1967, с. 83-1II.

Беляев Б. В. Очерки по психологии обучения зарубежным язы­кам. М.. 1965. с. 5—10.

Questions for Discussion:

1.Compare several viewpoints on Methods as a science.

2.Give reasons to confirm that Methods is an independent science

—Methods possesses its own field of research. True or false?

—Methods GENERAL PROBLEMS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING is incorrelated with other sciences and is fed by them. In what way?

Methods utilizes various kinds of scientific investigation. Consider the kinds you find necessary.

Chapter II


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